Macro and micromorphological study on fruit (disseminule) of the genus Gundelia L. (Asteraceae) with new evidence

Mehmet FIRAT, Selami SELVİ


In this study, fruits (ripe disseminules) of 22 taxa of the genus Gundelia defined in the world were studied. Fifteen of these species are endemic to Turkey, there is 1 endemic species in Iran, and 1 endemic species in Armenia. For the first time, fruit (ripe disseminule) shapes, macro and micromorphological characters of all species were compared in detail. While showing the shapes of the fruit (ripe disseminule) of each species, 25 different fruit (ripe disseminule) were selected considering all variations. In the micromorphological studies, the fruit (ripe disseminule) surface of the genus was studied for the first time in the scanning electron microscope (SEM). While the fruit (ripe disseminule) base and middle surfaces of the genus are rugose, striate, reticulate, and scalariform; the spines show striate and ruminate ornamentations. Anomocytic type stomata were observed for the first time in the spins of all taxa examined. No stomata were found in the reduced structure (pappus) in all of the members of the Asteraceae family. On the other hand, the presence of stomata was detected in the reduced structure spines of Gundelia genus. According to the morphological and micromorphological characters obtained, G. vitekii and G. tenuisecta; G. microcephala and G. purpurascens, and G. dersim with G. armata taxa were found to be very close to each other. In addition; A dendrogram is constructed as a result of the cluster analysis of the examined taxa of Gundelia based on the variation of fruit (ripe disseminule) characters in 22 taxa. The average weight of seeds of each species is given (25 variations). The fruit (ripe disseminule) details, general views, and synflorescence flowers of all the Gundelia taxa in the world are given together for the first time. Also, a dichotomous key is provided for the first time for the identification of the examined species based on fruit (ripe disseminule) characters.


Asteraceae, disseminule, Gundelia, fruit, micromorphology, SEM


Açar, M, Beker Akbulut, G. & Taşar, N. (2021). Anatomical, Palynological and Biochemical Studies on Gundelia dersim Vitek, Yüce & Ergin (Asteraceae) an Endemic of Turkey. Journal of the Institute of Science and Technology, 11(2): 1781- 1791.

Al-Taey, R. A. & Hossain, M. (1984). Studies in Gundelia: a new species from Iraq. Notes of the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 42: 39-44.

Armağan, M. (2016). Gundelia vitekii (Compositae), a new species from Turkey. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums Wien, Serie B., 118: 129-134.

Avetisian, V. E. (1995). Gundelieae. In: Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) Flora Armenii 9. Koeltz Scientific Books, Havlíčkův Brod, pp. 212-216.

Barthlott, W. (1981). Epidermal and seed surface characters of plants: systematic applicability and some evolutionary aspects. Nordic Journal of Botany 1: 345–355.

Boissier, E. (1875). Flora Orientalis Sive Enumeratio Plantarum in Oriente a Graecia et Aegypto ad Indiae Fines Hucusque Observatarum, Vol. 3: Calyciflorae Gamopetalae. Georg, Bibliopolam, Genevae & Basileae.

Bornmmüller, J. (1939). Fortsetzung III. Compositae-Tubiflorae. Iter Persicoturcicum 1892–1893. Beitrage zur Flora von Persien, Babylonien, Assyrien, Arabien. Botanische Centralblatt, Beiheft 60 Abt. B: 181-228.

Bornmüller, J. (1906). Plantae Straussianae, sive Enumeratio plantarum a Th. Strauss annis 1889-1899 in Persia occidentali collectarum (Fortsetzung). Beihefte zum Botanischen Centralblatt, 2. Abteilung 20: 151-196.

De Candolle, A. P. (1836). Prodromus systematis naturalis regnis vegetabilis, 5.

Esau, K. (1962). Plant anatomy. Fourth Ed. John Wiley and Sons, inc. NewYork, London.

Fahn, A. (1990). Plant Anatomy. Fourty edition, Butterworth, Heinemann Pub. Ltd., Jarusalem, Israel.

Feinbrun-Dothan, N. (1978). Flora Palaestina, 3. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem, 481 pp.

Fırat, M. & Selvi, S. (2021). Palynological observations on the genus Gundelia L. (Asteraceae) growing in Turkey. Phytotaxa, 502 (1): 51-66.

Fırat, M. (2013). Ferhenga Navên Riwekên Bi Kurdî/Kürtçe Bitki Adları Sözlüğü/Dictionary of Plant Names in Kurdish. Kalkan Ofset, Ankara, 652 pp.

Fırat, M. (2016). Four new species of Gundelia L. (Asteraceae) from Anatolia: G. komagenensis, G. colemerikensis, G. cilicica and G. anatolica. Vameda Ofset Press, Van, 32 pp.

Fırat, M. (2017a). The resurrection and a new status of Gundelia tournefortii L. var. asperrima Trautv. (Asteraceae). OT Sistematik Botanik Dergisi, 24 (2): 57-67.

Fırat, M. (2017b) Gundelia mesopotamica (Asteraceae), a new lactiferous species from Mardin (Turkey). Acta Biologica Turcica, 30 (3): 64-69.

Fırat, M. (2017c). Gundelia rosea (Asteraceae), a new record for the Flora of Turkey with contributions to its systematics. Acta Biologica Turcica, 30 (2): 31-35.

Fırat, M. (2018a). A new status of Gundelia tournefortii L. forma purpurascens Bornm. (Asteraceae) and a new record for the flora of Turkey. OT Sistematik Botanik Dergisi, 25 (1): 11-24.

Fırat, M. (2018b). Gundelia armeniaca (Asteraceae), a species new to the flora of Turkey, with contributions to its taxonomy. Communications Faculty of Sciences University of Ankara Series C, 27 (2): 35-46.

Fırat, M. (2019a). New status of Gundelia tournefortii L. var. armata Freyn & Sint. (Asteraceae), and a new synonym of its. OT Sistematik Botanik Dergisi, 26 (1): 17-32.

Fırat, M. (2019b). Gundelia siirtica (Asteraceae), a new lactiferous species from Siirt (south-eastern Anatolia). Phytotaxa, 394 (4): 276-284.

Fırat, M. (2021a). A new taxonomic arrangement of the Asian genus Gundelia (Asteraceae), including two subgenera and two sections. Acta Biologica Turcica, 34(2), 92- 99.

Fırat, M. (2021b). Gundelia cappadocica (Asteraceae); a new lactiferous species from Cappadocia (Kapadokya) Turkey, belonging to G. subg. Gundelia sect. Komagenenses Acta Biologica Turcica, 34(3), 128- 139.

Freyn, J. (1892). Plantae novae Orientales. II. Oesterreichische Botanische Zeitschrif, 42(5): 165-170.

Genç, İ. & Fırat, M. (2019). Karyological study of the genus Gundelia (Compositae) in Turkey. Caryologia, 72(1): 45-53. doi: 10.13128/cayologia-250

Hammer O, Harper D, Ryan P (2001) PAST: Paleontological Statistics Software Package for Education and Data Analysis. Palaeontologia Electronica 4(1):1-9.

Hamzaoğlu, E. & Budak, Ü. (2009). Centaurea aksoyi sp. nov. (Asteraceae: Cardueae) from Turkey and a contribution to the sectional taxonomy. Nordic Journal of Botany 27: 16-20.

Karis, P. O., Eldenäs, P. & Källersjö, M. (2001). New evidence for systematic position of Gundelia L. with notes on delimitation of Arctoteae (Asteraceae). Taxon, 50: 105-114.

Kostekci, S. & Arabacı, T. (2011). Cypsela morphology of Cirsium sect. Cirsium (Asteraceae) taxa in Turkey. Biologia 66(6): 988 - 995. doi: 10.2478/s11756-011-0110-6

Kupicha, F. K. (1975). Gundelia. In: Davis, P.H. (ed.) Flora of Turkey 5. University Press, Edinburgh. pp. 325-326.

Linnaeus, C. (1753). Species Plantarum. Laurentius Salvius, Stockholm, 1200 p.

Metcalfe, C.R. & Chalk L. (1950). Anatomy of the Dicotyledons. Vol. 2. Clarendon Press, Oxford. 724 p.

Metcalfe, C.R. & Chalk, L. (1957). Anatomy of The Dicotyledons (Leaves, Stem and Wood in Relation to Taxonomy with Notes on Economic Uses), Vol. 1, Oxford University Press, Amen House, London. 79-87.

Miller, P. (1768). The Gardeners Dictionary, ed. 8. Printed for the author, London.

Nersesyan, A. (2014). Gundelia armeniaca Nersesyan (Compositae) a New species from Armenia. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums Wien, Serie B., 116: 191-196.

Nikitin, V. V. (1960). Gundelia L. In: Schischkin, B.K. (ed.) Flora Turkmenii 7. Akademiia nauk Turkmenskoĭ SSR, Institut Botaniki, Ashkhabad. p. 141.

Ozcan, M. & Demir, K. (2022). Pappus and fruit micromorphology and fruit anatomy in some members of the tribe Cardueae (Asteraceae) from Turkey with their contributions to systematics. Microscopy Research Technique, 85(2):641-666. doi: 10.1002/jemt.23938.

Punt, W., Hoen, P.P., Blackmore, S., Nilsson, S. & Le Thomas, A. (2007). Glossary of pollen and spore terminology. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 143: 1–81.

Rauwolf, L. (1583). Aigentliche beschreibung der Raiß, so er vor diser zeit gegen Auffgang inn die Morgenländer, fürnemlich Syriam, Judaeam, Arabiam, Mesopotamiam, Babyloniam, Assyriam, Armeniam u. nicht ohne geringe mühe unnd grosse gefahr selbs volbracht: neben Vermeidung vil anderer seltsamer und denckwürdiger Sachen, die alle er auff solcher erkundiget, gesehen und observiert hat. Laugingen.

Rechinger, K. H. (1989). Gundelia. In: Rechinger, K.H. (ed.) Flora Iranica 164. Akademische Druck- und Verlagsanstalt, Graz. pp. 107-109.

Sofieva, R. M. (1961). Gundelia L. In: Karjagin, I.I. (ed.) Flora Azerbajdžana 8. Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences Press, Baku. pp. 347-348.

Stearn, W.T. (1992). Botanical Latin. 4th ed. London, UK: David & Charles, pp. 489–491.

Tarikahya Hacioğlu, B. & Fırat, M. (2017). ITS Phylogeny and Molecular Dating of some Gundelia (Asteraceae) of Anatolia. Anadolu, 27 (2): 74-77.

Thiers, B. (2022). (continuously updated): Index Herbariorum: A global directory of public herbaria and associated staff. New York Botanical Garden's Virtual Herbarium. Available from: (accessed 20 June 2020).

Trautvetter, E. R. (1876). Plantarum messes anno 1874 in Armenia a Dre. G. Radde et in Daghestania ab A. Becker factas commentatus est. Trudy Imperatorskago Sankt-Peterburgskago botanicheskago sada 4: 97-192.

Vasilchenko, I. T. (1961). Gundelia L. In: Komarov V.L. (ed.) Flora SSSR, 26. Nauka Publishers, Moscow & Leningrad, p. 862.

Vitek, E. & Jarvis, C. E. (2007). The typification of Gundelia tournefortii L. (Compositae). Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museum Wien, Serie B., 108: 267-272.

Vitek, E. & Noroozi, J. (2017). Gundelia tehranica (Compositae), a new species from Iran. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museum Wien, Serie B., 119: 243-248.

Vitek, E. (2018). Gundelia microcephala (Compositae) –a taxon deserving rank of species, Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museum Wien, Serie B., 120: 233-239.

Vitek, E., Fayvush, G., Tamanyan, K. & Gemeinholzer, B. (2010). New taxa of Gundelia (Compositae) in Armenia. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums Wien, Serie B. 111: 85-99.

Vitek, E., Yüce, E. & Ergin, C. (2014). Gundelia dersim and Gundelia munzuriensis (Compositae), two new species from Turkey. Phytotaxa, 161: 130-138. phytotaxa.161.2.4


  • There are currently no refbacks.