Confirmed record of Gymnocephalus cernua Linnaeus, 1758 (Perciformes: Percidae) as a new exotic species for Turkey

Erdoğan ÇİÇEK, Özgür EMİROĞLU, Burak SEÇER, Sadi AKSU, Sevil SUNGUR, Sercan BAŞKURT, Hümeyra BAHÇECİ


Number of alien species have been increasing in freshwater ichthyofauna of Turkey reason of aquaculture, stock enhancement, ornamental, fishing, accident release, and range extension of natural distribution of some species due to the newly formed waterways. Gymnocephalus cernua Linnaeus, 1758 species has been reported to have expanded its natural distribution area in Balkan countries in recent years. A total of 217 specimens was caught from Gala, Sığırcı and Pamuklu lakes of the Maritze-Ergene Basin during the field studies conducted in 2018. This study provides the first verified record of the species in question in Turkey. It was determined that the average length and weight values of the 52 individuals estimated as 12.32±2.28 cm (9.6-17.6) and 26.08±18.52 g (9.3-80.0), respectively. The length-weight relationship was estimated as W=0.073*L3.2291 and Fulton's condition factor was calculated as K=1.23±0.18 (0.73-1.62). The date on which the species is not known his ways entry to Turkey. Taking the necessary measures to reveal the current and future potential effects of the G. cernua on the ecosystem and to prevent its distribution to other regions such as other invasive species is of great importance in terms of management and protection of biodiversity.


Maritze-Ergene basin, Gala Lake, Sıgırcı Lake, Pamuklu Lake, Exotic

Full Text:



Allendorf, F. (1991). Ecological and genetic effects of fish introductions: synthesis and recommendations. Canadian Journal Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 48, 178-181.

Beletsky, D., Beletsky, R., Rutherford, E.S., Sieracki, J.L., Bossenbroek, J.M., Chadderton, W.L., Wittmanne, M.E., Annis, G.M., & Lodge, D.M. 2017. Predicting spread of aquatic invasive species by lake currents. Journal of Great Lakes Research, 43, 14-32.

Cetinkaya, O. (2006). Grafted or stocked waters of exotic and indigenous species of fish in ,FishTaxa, 3(4): 1-39.

Copp, G.H., Bianco, P.G., Bogutskaya, N.G., Eros, T., Falka, I., Ferreira, M.T., Fox, M.G., Freyhof, J., Gozlan, R.E., Grabowska, J., Kovác, V., Moreno-Amich, R., Naseka, A.M., Penáz, M., Povz, M., Przybylski, M., Robillard, M., Russell, I.C., Staknas, S., Šumer, S., Vila-Gispert, A. & Wiesner, C. 2005. To be, or not to be, a non-native freshwater fish? Journal of Applied Ichthyology 21: 242-262.

Cowx, I.G. 1998. (ed.) Stocking and introduction of fish. Fishing News Books, Oxford.

Çiçek, E., Sungur, S., & Fricke, R. (2020). Freshwater lampreys and fishes of Turkey; a revised and updated annotated checklist 2020. Zootaxa, 4809(2), 241-270.

Ekmekçi, F.G., Kırankaya, Ş.G., Gençoğlu, L. & Yogurtcuoglu, B. (2013). Present Status of Invasive Fishes in Inland Waters of Turkey and Assessment of the Effects of Invasion. Journal of Fisheries & Aquatic Sciences, 28, 105-140.

Emiroğlu, Ö. (2011). Alien fish species in upper Sakarya River and their distribution. African Journal of Biotechnology, 10(73), 16674-16681.

Emiroğlu, Ö., Atalay, M.A., Ekmekçi, F.G., Aksu, S., Başkurt, S., Keskin, E., Ünal, E.M., Yoğurtçuoğlu, B., & Tarkan, A.S. (2020). One of the world’s worst invasive species, Clarias batrachus (Actinopterygii: Siluriformes: Clariidae), has arrived and established a population in Turkey. Acta Ichthyologica et Piscatoria, 50 (4), 391-400.

Emiroğlu, Ö., Ekmekçi, F.G., Aksu, S., Başkurt, S., Atalay, M.A. & Tarkan, A.S. 2016. Introduction and Establishment of Tropical Ornamental Fish, Pterygoplichthys spp. (Actinopterygii: Siluriformes: Loricariidae) in Hot Springs: Aquarium Trade as a Potential Risk for Biodiversity in Turkey. Acta Ichthyologica et Piscatoria, 46 (4), 351-356,

Fricke, R., Bilecenoglu, M., & Sari, H.M. (2007) Annotated checklist of fish and lamprey species (Gnathostomata and Petromyzontomorphi) of Turkey, including a Red List of threatened and declining species. Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde, Serie A (Biologie), (706): 1-172.

Holcík, J. (1991). Fish introductions in Europe with particular reference to its central and eastern part. Canadian Journal Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 48(Suppl. 1), 13-23.

Innal, D., & Erkakan, F. (2006). Effects of exotic and translocated fish species in the inland waters of Turkey. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 16, 39-50,

Innal, D., & Sungur, S. (2019). First Record of Non-indigenous Fish Hemichromis letourneuxi (Cichlidae) From Pınarbaşı Creek (Burdur, Turkey). The Journal of Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences of Mehmet Akif Ersoy University, 10(1), 90-94,

Innal, D. (2012). Alien fish species in reservoir systems in Turkey: a review. Management of Biological Invasions 3: 115-119.

Kottelat, M., & Freyhof, J. (2007). Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp.

Kováč, V. (1998). Biology of Eurasian ruffe from Slovakia and adjacent central European countries. Journal of Great Lakes Research, 24, 205-216.

Kurtul, I. & Sarı, H.M. (2019). Contribution on the Distribution of Gambusia holbrooki (Mosquitofish) in Turkey. LimnoFish, 5(3), 170-180.

Kuru, M., Yerli, S.V., Mangit, F., Ünlü, E., & Alp, A. (2014). Fish biodiversity inland waters of Turkey. Journal of Academic Documents for Fisheries and Aquaculture, 3, 93-120.

McDougall, B., & Eagleburger, L. (1992). Ruffe In The Great Lakes: A Threat To North American Fisheries. Great Lakes Fishery Commission Ruffe Task Force, Michigan, 148p.

Moyle, P.B., Li, H.W., & Barton, B. (1987). The Frankenstein effect: impact of introduced fishes on native fishes in North America. 415-426. In: Stroud R.H. (ed.) The role of fish culture in fishery management. American Fishery Society, Bethesda.

Özcan, G., & Serhan, T.A. (2019). Distribution revisited- fifteen years of changes in the invasion of a freshwater fish, Pseudorasbora parva (Temminck and Schlegel, 1846) in Turkey. Transylvanian Review of Systematical and Ecological Research, 21(2), 69-80,

Özuluğ, M., Gaygusuz, Ö., Gaygusuz, Ç.G., & Saç, G. (2019). New Distribution Areas of Four Invasive Freshwater Fish Species from Turkish Thrace. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 19(10), 837-845.

Petriki, O., Naziridis, T., Apostolou, A., Koutrakis, E., & Bobori, D.C. (2014). The Spread of the Introduced Gymnocephalus cernua Linnaeus, 1758 (Perciformes: Percidae) along the Transboundary Strymonas (Struma) River Basin: First Report in Kerkini Dam Lake (Greece). Acta Zool. Bulg., 66 (4): 563-566.

Pratt, D. (1988). Distribution and population status of the ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernua) in the St. Louis estuary and Lake Superior. Great Lakes Fishery Commission, Research Completion Report. 12 pp.

Sparre, P., Venema, S.C. (1998). Introduction to tropical fish stock assessment. Part 1. Manual. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 306.1 Rev.2, Rome, FAO. 407p.

Tarhan, A.S., Copp, G.H., Top, N., Özdemir, N., Önsoy, M.B., Bilge, G., Filiz, H., Yapıcı, S., Ekmekçi, F.G., Kırankaya, Ş.G., Emiroğlu, Ö., Gürsoy Gaygusuz, Ç., Oymak, S.A. & Özcan, G. (2012). Are introduced gibel carp Carassius gibelio in Turkey more invasive in artificial than in natural waters? Fisheries Management and Ecology, 19, 178-187,

Tarkan, A.S., Marr, S.M. & Ekmekçi, F.G. (2015). Non-native and translocated freshwater fish species in Turkey. FiSHMED Fishes in Mediterranean Environments, 2015.003.

TSE. (2006). TS EN 14757-Water quality-sampling of fish with multi-mesh gillnets. Turkish Standard Institute, Ankara, 27p.

Türkmen, G. (2019). First record of the Guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859) in inlandwaters of Turkey. Ege Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 36(4), 397-400.

Uzunova, E. & Zlatanova, S. (2007). A review of the fish introductions in Bulgarian freshwaters. Acta Ichthyologica et Piscatoria, 37(1), 55-61.

Welcomme, R.L. (1992). Ahistory of international introductions of inland aquatic species. ICES Marine Science Symposium, 194, 3-14.

Wildekamp, R.H. & Valkenburg, K. (1994). Notizen Über Zahnkarpfen-Lebensraüme in Anatolien. Die Aquarien und Terrarien Zeitschrift, 47(7), 447-453.

Witkowski, A. (2002). Introduction of fishes into Poland: benefaction or plague? Nature Conservation, 59, 41-52.

Yerli, S.V. (2019). First record of a coregonid fish species, Coregenus albula (Linnaeus, 1758) (Salmoniformes: Salmonidae) in Aktaş Lake shared between Turkey and Georgia. Journal of Black Sea/Mediterranean Environment, 25(3), 325-332.

Yerli, S.V., Mangit, F., Emiroğlu, Ö., Yeğen, V., Uysal, R., Ünlü, E., Alp, A., Buhan, E., Yıldırım, T. & Zengin, M. (2014). Distribution of Invasive Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782) (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) in Turkey. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 14, 581-590.

Yogurtcuoglu, B. & Ekmekci, F.G. (2018). First Record of the Giant Pangasius, Pangasıus sanitwongsei (Actinopterygi: Siluriformes: Pangaiidae), From Central Anatolia, Turkey. Acta Ichthyologica Et Piscatoria, 48(3), 241-244.


  • There are currently no refbacks.